Category Archives: Chapter I – CA2013

PRELIMINARY (and Date of Enforcement, Amendment, Repealing also as section 1 is here.)

KASHMIR AND THE COMPANIES ACT


The Monday 5th August 2019 witnessed a powerful and joyful celebration of Indian Unity and also an unfortunate revelation of various misconceptions of minds of thousands of Indians. Social media witnessed the flow of social and legal bias established by the most lethal weapon of human history – the half-knowledge. Soon, overflowing sentiments overpowered the knowledge, understanding and interpretation even of well dignified professional minds.

A section of professionals claimed that the Indian Companies Act, 2013 shall now be applicable to state (now Union Territory) of Jammu and Kashmir. Strange!!

We will try to remove the misconception of mind here.

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Election of Directors – Companies limited by Guarantee without Share Capital


I received this interesting question on Quora and replied here. Other replies to the answer prompt me to post a short write up here on my blog. It seems it is a quite confusing and lesser explored area of most of us. We all students of corporate law at least once wonder about it and sometimes continue to do so.

The base question is – “How to decide voting rights of members in a guarantee company not having share capital?”

Here, before coming to the main question, it is prudent to discuss briefly the concept of the member under the Companies Act, 2013. Most of us use the terms members and shareholders as interchangeable. It is not so. All shareholders are generally members, but all members are not shareholders. When we say so, we usually think about shareholders pending registration of transfer or transmission. We miss 50% of the theoretical portion of the subject – Company limited by guarantee.

According to clause (55) of Section 2 the “member”, in relation to a company, means—

(i) the subscriber to the memorandum of the company who shall be deemed to have agreed to become a member of the company, and on its registration, shall be entered as a member in its register of members;

(ii) every other person who agrees in writing to become a member of the company and whose name is entered in the register of members of the company; and

(iii) every person holding shares of the company and whose name is entered as a beneficial owner in the records of a depository.

Membership of a company may or may not be in the form of shareholding. Membership is transferable. In the case of a company limited by shares, a member may transfer his membership by transfer of share. In the case of a company limited by guarantee, a member may transfer his membership by just transferring membership. If a reader is confused about such transfer of share, he may just discuss himself about a transfer of shares not fully paid.

As I mentioned some of my earlier answers on the Quora and on my blog, a company limited by shares and a company limited by guarantee have no practical difference except one. A reader may look into the definition given here as the footnote[1].

May you for a moment consider a company having a share capital with all members decided to pay only at the time of liquidation or winding up. It is akin to a guarantee company. A company with uncalled unpaid shares has no practical difference with a guarantee company. ( see footnote [2])

The voting rights in a guarantee company may be decided on the basis of the ratio of guarantee or say the amount of percentage of guarantee given by a member against total guarantee given to the company by all member combine.

A, B, C and D may form a guarantee company by a promising guarantee of Re.5,000/, Rs. 15,000/-, Rs. 12,000 and Rs 8,000/-respectively. They may have respectively 5, 15, 12 and 8 votes in the General Meeting of the company.

Now, you may understand how to elect directors in general meeting other than first directors.

All practical provisions related to appointment of directors and passing any resolution shall remain the same.

Note -To my understanding, there will not be any differential voting rights in the guarantee company. Readers may also discuss the same.

[1] Two other important definitions in this regards are as under

(21) “company limited by guarantee” means a company having the liability of its members limited by the memorandum to such amount as the members may respectively undertake to contribute to the assets of the company in the event of its being wound up.

(22) “company limited by shares” means a company having the liability of its members limited by the memorandum to the amount, if any, unpaid on the shares respectively held by them.

[2] It is a secondary thing that present law requires receiving of money shares subscribed in the memorandum of association by the promoters.

The Companies Amendment Ordinance 2019


The Government of India Promulgated the Companies (Amendment) Ordinance, 2019 on 12th January 2019 to give continuing effect to the Companies(Amendment ) Ordinance, 2018 and to amend the Companies Act, 2013. This is notable that the companies (Amendment) Ordinance, 2019 has a significant difference its precursor.

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Financial Year for a company


Law stated in this post is as on 20th December 2018.

Financial Year reflects the reporting period for the purpose of financial and non-financial reporting by a company to its stakeholders including government authorities. Since the financial year of the Government of India is 1st April to 31st March as per the British system. The Companies Act, 2013 aligned financial year for companies registered in India to that of the government. There are certain exemptions to have a different period for the financial year. In this post we will discuss the financial year in light of the companies (Amendment) Ordinance, 2018 read with the companies (Incorporation) Fourth Amendment Rules, 2018 and Notification S.O. 6225 (E) dated 18th December 2018.

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Effective Provisions of the Companies Amendment Act 2017 w.e.f. 13 June 2018


With Four Notifications; S.O. 351(E) dated 23rd January 2018, S.O. 630(E) dated 9th February 2018, S.O. 1833(E) dated 7th May 2018 and S.O. 2422(E) dated 13th June 2018 most provisions of the Companies (Amendment) Act, 2017 (1 of 2018) come into force. Here is a bird’s eye view.

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Half of the Companies Amendment Act, 2017 effective


Vide Notification S.O. 351(E) dated 23rd January 2018 Section 1 and 4 of the Companies (Amendment) Act, 2017 came into force on 26th January 2018. According to a draft notification placed on the website of Ministry of Corporate Affairs[i], Central Government appoints 9th February 2018 as the date on which 42 other sections and a major part of section 2 of the Companies (Amendment) Act, 2017 came into force.

UPDATE: The Notification S. O. 630(E) dated 9th February 2018 published in the Gazette of India on 12th February 2018 uploaded with the digital signature of publisher dated 16th February 2018.

Here is a bird’s eye view.

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AishMGhrana – Law Governance Responsibility 2017


The blog “AishMGhrana – Law Governance Responsibility” regularly put here its annual reports for public information. Our readers are our assets. We are thankful to every reader for the long association since March 2011.

Our readers can enhance their knowledge anywhere anytime on mobiles, tablets, laptops and desktops. We assure our readers that this blog has secured https protocol and completely mobile friendly. The blog is a participant of Accelerated mobile Pages (AMP) program of Google to ensure less mobile data consumption while loading.

The blog was adjudged as one of the best blogs in India by Indianbloggers.org in category “law” in 2013 and continue hold this position. Indian Blog critics IndianTopBlogs.com listed this blog among best blogs on Corporate Affairs for years 2013 – 14, 2014 – 15, 2016 and 2017. The Feedspot lists this blog among “Top 100 Legal Blogs worldwide Every Lawyer and Law Student Must Follow”. This blog is among top 50 blogs on this list of the Feedspot.

The blog got about 5.02 lakh page views by 3.32 lakhs unique visitors this year against 3.6 lakh page views by 2.4 lakhs unique visitors last year. This year we achieved magic figure of 50,000 views a month twice. During the year, the blog posted 58 posts. The blog now hosts total 628 blog posts and completed 17 lakh page-views and 10.9 lakh visitors.

Most of our readers are resident of India and others are from 198 (against 168 last year) territories worldwide. Other than India; United States, Malaysia, United Kingdom, Singapore, Pakistan, European Union,  South Africa, Kenya was important territories with more than 1,000 yearly views in the year 2017.

Most of our readers landed here on the blog from Search engines. Few others were referred by Social Media and friends. This year views using mobile phone increased sharply to about 4,000 from 1700 last years.

Now 845 committed readers (against 692 last year) subscribed the blog to their email to get instant updates. You may also join mail subscription. 144 fellow blogger – readers (against 109 last year) read the blog on WordPress reader. The blog has 5,493 amazing fans and committed readers. The blog time to time received many testimonials sent by readers. Though these figures speak themselves, we request our readers to use like and share buttons liberally.

On-demand, Index of Companies Law Posts as updated on 31st December 2017 is uploaded here: Index of Company Law Posts 2017

Subsidiaries Layers limited


The Patron Government of ease of doing business was earlier considered not favourable for corporate governance. After “successful” demonetization, government looking for all possible measure it seems necessary even though earlier not much liked by it. The enforcement of the provision of limiting layers of subsidiaries is one such law. Ministry of Corporate Affairs on 20th September 2017 notified Proviso to clause (87) of section 2 and –.

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RETINA SIGNATURE – REPLACING DIGITAL SIGNATURES


Bye – Bye Digital Signature Certificates!!

Inter – ministerial task force on secured authentication of legal documents actively discussing retina signatures which next logical step after introduction of biometric identification system in India. Indian mainstream media undermined these reports amid its stir on recent development in Uttar Pradesh.

Under critically proactive leadership of Prime Minister Narendra Modi an inter-ministerial task force was formed just after demonetization to consider digital cash, digital contracts and digitization of legal and court documents. The task force includes highly places officers of Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Law & Justice, Ministry of Information Technology, Unique Identification Authority of India, Ministry of Health & Family welfare. Highly placed sources suggest that a prime intelligence agency of nation is also involved and getting help from an agency of a friendly foreign nation.

Retina signature is a unique technique developed by a research group consist of countries premier medical colleges and information technology universities. This is quite advance technique user shall sign just showing his retina to camera attached to his laptop, mobile or desktop. This futuristic system shall replace token based digital signature certificate and can be used anytime anywhere by anybody. Though, it will be restricted presently for human need, this technique is so advance that it can be even be used by advance animals using their retina. Retina signature will eradicate need for renewal of digital signature certificates. This technology provides lifelong free signatures subject to good health and maintenance of retina. Any kind of file type may be signed using retina signature.

Retina is third and inner coat of eye which is a light-sensitive layer of tissue. The unique structure of the blood vessels in the retina has been used for biometric identification. Changes in the retinal microcirculation are seen with aging, exposure to air pollution and may indicate cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and atherosclerosis.

In proposed methodology, a user shall place his eyes before camera of his mobile or laptop when a document to be signed should be opened before him on same device. It is also possible to sign a documents placed in another device. The retina signature shall capture bio-metrics of retina, system time, internet protocol address and geo-positioning of signatory. Once, signed there shall be no removal of signature from the documents shall be possible unless authorized by competent authority, which shall be a civil judge.

As usual, human right activists are planning to oppose the move. Activists argue that scrupulous elements and police authorities may get retina signature using force and other means. However, government authority denies any such possibilities. The task force working on modalities to make it happened in case blind, mentally challenged and otherwise unhealthy people.

A copy of relevant study document may be assessed here on or after 1st April.

 

Updated Index of Company Law Posts


Download Index of Company Law Posts as updated on March 31, 2017

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contract or agreement


In company law, there is interchangeable use of term contract and agreement. Though, they does not refer to same things. There is another term arrangement which also relevant in this context but not relevant to present post, here.

Agreement is an action of being agree. A contract is more than that.

“All contracts are agreements but all agreements are not contract.”

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Commence dates of Sections of Companies Act, 2013


Updated as on 30th April 2017

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Companies Act 2013 Amended by Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code 2016


A notification issued by Ministry of Corporate Affairs notified section 255 of the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016. By virtue of notification of Section 255 of Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016; the Companies Act, 2013, stands amended in accordance with Schedule XI of the IBC2016 with effect from 15th November 2016. We shall have a short discussion here.

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Removal of Auditor Appointment Difficulty


Government of India has removed a dozen difficulties from the Companies Act, 2013. Yes, the Companies (Removal of Difficulties) Third Order, 2016 is twelfth order in Removal of difficulties series of Orders in these three years.

In this post we will discuss this Removal of Difficulties Order.

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Notification of Sections Relevant for NCLT


Yesterday late evening, I posted here about press release issued by Ministry of Corporate Affairs. Soon thereafter, two files uploaded on Official Gazette website with two notifications in each. In earlier post here today, we discussed establishment and jurisdiction of various NCLT benches.

In this post, we will have a bird’s eye view on Sections notified on 1st June 2016 related to NCLT.

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Remaining Part of Companies Amendment Act became Effective


A gazette notification posted here on official website of the Gazette of India and posted on website of Ministry of Corporate Affairs says that Section 13 and Section 14 of the Companies (Amendment) Act, 2015 came into force with effect from 14th December 2015. The official language of notification read, “The Central Government hereby appoints the 14th day of December, 2015 as the date on which the provisions of section 13 and 14 of the said Act shall come into force.”

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Part of Companies Amendment Act became Effective


A draft notification posted here on website of Ministry of Corporate Affairs says that Section 1 to 12 and Section 15 to 23 of the Companies (Amendment) Act, 2015 came into force with effect from 29th May 2015. The official language of notification read, “the Central Government hereby appoints the 296 May, 2015 as the date on which the provisions of sections 1 to 12 and 15 to 23 of the said Act shall come into force.” The Amendment Act was got presidential assent and notified by Ministry of Law and Justice as such on 26th May 2015 in official gazette.

Two sections not notified yet deals with Fraud Reporting Procedure [Section 13 amending Section 143 of Principal Act] and Related Party Transactions [Section 14 amending Section 177 of Principal Act]. This is understood that Rules related to these sections are in drafting process.

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Suggestion for MCA website, “Act and Rules” Section


Dear Sir,
 
I am regular user of portal of Ministry of Company Affairs. This is one government site which update regularly. I have a small suggestion. This is related to “Act and Rules” section. 
 
I find Ministry update it immediately, whenever there is any new Rules, Notification, General Circular or order issued by Ministry and send for publication of Official Gazette of India. As you aware; most of these rules, notifications and orders come into force on the date of publication in the Official Gazette and until publication in Official Gazette, copies of these rules, notifications and orders are just a piece of information, not of Law of land.
 
I would like to suggest you, when these rules, notification and order published in Official gazette, Ministry may please replace its pre – publication copies with copies published in Official Gazette. This will help stakeholders to know date of publication in official gazette as well as date from which these rules, notification and orders.
 
I understand, this may increase workload a little bit but help stakeholders a lot and improve image of Ministry also.

Companies Permitted to invest (Removal of Difficulty Order2015)


Ministry of Corporate Affairs issued another “the Companies (Removal of Difficulties) Order, 2015” in exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) of section 470 of the Companies Act, 2013 o remove the difficulties form (a) Definition of Small Companies under Section 2(85) and (b) for that purpose also inserted forth item in sub – section (11) of Section 186.

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Change in Definition of Small Company (Removal of Difficulty Order 2015)


Ministry of Corporate Affairs issued another “the Companies (Removal of Difficulties) Order, 2015” in exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) of section 470 of the Companies Act, 2013 to remove the difficulties form (a) Definition of Small Companies under Section 2(85) and (b) for that purpose also inserted forth item in sub – section (11) of Section 186.

As we have already discussed earlier here, original definition of small company is:

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