Category Archives: Chapter I – CA2013

PRELIMINARY (and Date of Enforcement, Amendment, Repealing also as section 1 is here.)

RETINA SIGNATURE – REPLACING DIGITAL SIGNATURES


Bye – Bye Digital Signature Certificates!!

Inter – ministerial task force on secured authentication of legal documents actively discussing retina signatures which next logical step after introduction of biometric identification system in India. Indian mainstream media undermined these reports amid its stir on recent development in Uttar Pradesh.

Under critically proactive leadership of Prime Minister Narendra Modi an inter-ministerial task force was formed just after demonetization to consider digital cash, digital contracts and digitization of legal and court documents. The task force includes highly places officers of Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Law & Justice, Ministry of Information Technology, Unique Identification Authority of India, Ministry of Health & Family welfare. Highly placed sources suggest that a prime intelligence agency of nation is also involved and getting help from an agency of a friendly foreign nation.

Retina signature is a unique technique developed by a research group consist of countries premier medical colleges and information technology universities. This is quite advance technique user shall sign just showing his retina to camera attached to his laptop, mobile or desktop. This futuristic system shall replace token based digital signature certificate and can be used anytime anywhere by anybody. Though, it will be restricted presently for human need, this technique is so advance that it can be even be used by advance animals using their retina. Retina signature will eradicate need for renewal of digital signature certificates. This technology provides lifelong free signatures subject to good health and maintenance of retina. Any kind of file type may be signed using retina signature.

Retina is third and inner coat of eye which is a light-sensitive layer of tissue. The unique structure of the blood vessels in the retina has been used for biometric identification. Changes in the retinal microcirculation are seen with aging, exposure to air pollution and may indicate cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and atherosclerosis.

In proposed methodology, a user shall place his eyes before camera of his mobile or laptop when a document to be signed should be opened before him on same device. It is also possible to sign a documents placed in another device. The retina signature shall capture bio-metrics of retina, system time, internet protocol address and geo-positioning of signatory. Once, signed there shall be no removal of signature from the documents shall be possible unless authorized by competent authority, which shall be a civil judge.

As usual, human right activists are planning to oppose the move. Activists argue that scrupulous elements and police authorities may get retina signature using force and other means. However, government authority denies any such possibilities. The task force working on modalities to make it happened in case blind, mentally challenged and otherwise unhealthy people.

A copy of relevant study document may be assessed here on or after 1st April.

 

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Updated Index of Company Law Posts


Download Index of Company Law Posts as updated on March 31, 2017

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contract or agreement


In company law, there is interchangeable use of term contract and agreement. Though, they does not refer to same things. There is another term arrangement which also relevant in this context but not relevant to present post, here.

Agreement is an action of being agree. A contract is more than that.

“All contracts are agreements but all agreements are not contract.”

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Commence dates of Sections of Companies Act, 2013


Updated as on 30th April 2017

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Companies Act 2013 Amended by Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code 2016


A notification issued by Ministry of Corporate Affairs notified section 255 of the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016. By virtue of notification of Section 255 of Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016; the Companies Act, 2013, stands amended in accordance with Schedule XI of the IBC2016 with effect from 15th November 2016. We shall have a short discussion here.

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Removal of Auditor Appointment Difficulty


Government of India has removed a dozen difficulties from the Companies Act, 2013. Yes, the Companies (Removal of Difficulties) Third Order, 2016 is twelfth order in Removal of difficulties series of Orders in these three years.

In this post we will discuss this Removal of Difficulties Order.

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Notification of Sections Relevant for NCLT


Yesterday late evening, I posted here about press release issued by Ministry of Corporate Affairs. Soon thereafter, two files uploaded on Official Gazette website with two notifications in each. In earlier post here today, we discussed establishment and jurisdiction of various NCLT benches.

In this post, we will have a bird’s eye view on Sections notified on 1st June 2016 related to NCLT.

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