Tag Archives: Accounting Standards

National Financial Reporting Authority (NFRA) and its Duties


Section 132 of the Companies Act, 2013 is the point of debate and hope for corporate governance. It paves way for constitution of National Financial Reporting Authority – a super-regulatory for statutory auditors – Chartered Accountants. Optimists see it as predecessor of a future super-regulator for self regulatory statutory professional organizations – Institute of Chartered Accountants of India regulating chartered accountants and statutory auditors, Institute of Cost Accountants of India (earlier Institute of Cost and Works Accountants of India) regulating cost and management accountants and cost auditors, and Institute of Company Secretaries of India regulating company secretaries and secretarial auditors. We earlier discussed the provision of original Section 132 earlier here.

In this post, we will discuss Duties of NFRA under Section 132 and the National Financial Reporting Authority Rules, 2018 as on 13th November 2018. Powers of NFRA to investigate and disciplinary proceeding shall be discussed in next post.

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YEARS’ ‘second’ AMENDMENT IN ACCOUNTS RULES


Ministry of Corporate Affairs placed on its web site a DRAFT notification on 4th September 2015 which proposed to amend the Companies (Accounts) Rules, 2015 with effect from date of publication of this notification in the official Gazette.

We will discuss here, provisions proposed to be amended by this notification:

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Every Holding Company to Consolidate Financial Statements


Rule 6 of the Companies (Accounts) Rules 2014 deals with consolidation of Accounts. This rule got its power from second proviso to sub – section (3) of Section 129.

According to Section 129(3), where a company has one or more subsidiaries, it shall, in addition to financial statements provided under sub-section (2), prepare a consolidated financial statement of the company and of all the subsidiaries in the same form and manner as that of its own which shall also be laid before the annual general meeting of the company along with the laying of its financial statement under sub-section (2).

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SUBSIDIARIES AND CONSOLIDATION OF ACCOUNTS


As we have discussed earlier here, Section 129(3) discuss about consolidation of accounts.

Where a company has any subsidiary, the company shall prepare a consolidated financial statement of the company and of all subsidiaries in the same form and manner as that of its own.  The consolidated financial statement shall also be laid before the annual general meeting along with own financial statement.

The company shall also attach along with its financial statement, a separate statement containing the salient features of the financial statement of its subsidiaries.

Under this section, the word subsidiary shall include associate company and joint venture.

Form of Statement containing salient features of financial statements of subsidiaries [Rule 5]

According to Second Proviso to Section 129(3) discussed earlier here, where a company has any subsidiary, the company shall prepare a consolidated financial statement of the company and of all subsidiaries in the same form and manner as that of its own.  The consolidated financial statement shall also be laid before the annual general meeting along with own financial statement.

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MAINTENANCE OF BOOKS OF ACCOUNT


The Companies (Accounts) Rules 2014 came into force from 1st April 2014. These rules first time recognised electronic mode for keeping of books of account.

Notice of address at which books of account are to be maintained [Rule 2A]:

As we discussed earlier here according to Section 128 of the Companies Act 2013, every company shall prepare and keep at its registered office books of accounts and other relevant books and papers and financial statement for every financial year. These books must give a true and fair view of the state of affairs of the company and its branch offices. These books must explain the transactions effected both at the registered office and its branches.  These books shall be kept on actual basis and double entry system of accounting.

These books or some of these books may be kept at a place other than registered office at the decision of the Board of Directors after filing with the Registrar of Companies a notice in writing giving full address of that place.

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BOOKS OF ACCOUNTS


The Financial Statements of a company is most important document until recent past, when non – financial reporting started to gain its momentum. This is a reporting of growth in business in monetary units.

BOOK OF ACCOUNTS (SECTION 128):

Every company shall prepare and keep at its registered office books of accounts and other relevant books and papers and financial statement for every financial year. These books must give a true and fair view of the state of affairs of the company and its branch offices. These books must explain the transactions effected both at the registered office and its branches.  These books shall be kept on actual basis and double entry system of accounting.

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NATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING AUTHORITY


(UPDATE: on 30th August 2013: Companies Bill became the Companies Act, 2013 (Act 18 of 2013). Post updated accordingly)

One of the foremost step for improving corporate governance since birth of concept of corporate governance is improving quality of accounting and auditing of companies. Audit Committee is one of these measures, which has been taken to improve standard of financial reporting. But concerns related to quality of financial reporting are not new. We can trace these concerns in earlier legislation, all earlier versions of the Companies Act in general and the Chartered Accountants Act, 1949. Without going deep in these laws, we simply say; what was otherwise need to enact such Act to regulate a profession of accounting and auditing, standardizing whole process of accounting and auditing.

The National Financial Reporting Authority is a quasi – judicial body to regulate matters related to accounting and auditing. With increasing demand of non – financial reporting, I may safely predict, a National Business Reporting Authority to regulate standards of all kind of reporting, financial as well as non – financial, from companies in near future.

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