Tag Archives: Registrar of Companies

Compounding


The Companies (Amendment) Act 2017 increased importance of compounding of offence manifold. Section 90 of the Companies (Amendment) Act, 2017 read with notification Notification S. O. 630(E) dated 9th February 2018 amended law related to compounding with effect from that date. However, provision of Section 441, as amended, of the Companies Act, 2013 gain momentum with notification Notification S.O. 1833(E) dated 7th May 2018. This notification notified amendment in Section 403. Most compounding application comes due to the late filing of forms constituting the violation of Section 403. Continue reading

Understanding Form DIR – 10


Many years ago one Hindu priest told me, those worshipping Laxmi ji (goddess of wealth) before without satisfying Ganesh Ji (god of goodness) may not get good wealth. We need to follow established a procedure to get the desired result. Without understanding utility of Form DIR – 10, its use may not give the desired result. Here, we will have a discussion.

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Remedies for disqualified directors of strike – off companies


Compliance way or Confine way! The Government made it clear. Directors who were on a long-term picnic after removal of names of their “shell companies” are now offered sleepless nights. I appreciate.

Ministry of Corporate Affairs issued two important lists in this regard –

  1. List Of Directors Associated With Struck Off Companies U/S 248
  2. List Of Disqualified Directors U/S 164 (2)(A)

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Appeal or Application for Restoration of Names of Company


The National Company Law Tribunal (Amendment) Rules, 2017 notified on 6th July 2017 which came into force in same date inserted Rule 87A the National Company Law Tribunal Rules, 2016. In this post, we will discuss newly inserted rules with brief background.

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MGT – 7 (v. 17Nov2015)


We live in a changing world; corporate world changing fast and Indian Corporate Law fastest. A draft of the Companies (Management and Administration) third Amendment Rules, 2015 dated 16th November 2015, which is pending for publication in Official Gazette of India amend the version of form MGT -7 once again. Though these amendment rules are not available in official gazette, new version of form MGT – 7 is made available on the MCA21 portal for filing.

Note: MGT – 7 Version 17th November 2015 is being used for writing this post. Earlier posts here and here are only historic relevance now.

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REPRESENTATIVE, PROXY AND WHO ELSE


This is not possible every time for a member to be present in a General Meeting. Members are very much concerned for well being of the company, its management, profit and growth. Corporate law does not permit members to participate members to interfere in day to day management. A member at most may seek certain information or participate in general meetings of the company. Participation in a meeting need a presence; a personal presence of a member. Even in a virtual presence, a member needs to spare time for the purpose.

Representative:

Further, it may also be possible that member is a corporate sole like President of India or Governor of an Indian State who may not be present himself but through representative. President of India and Governor of an Indian State may appoint a person as his representative for a meeting of the company [Section 112(1)]. Where a member is a body corporate, it may also appoint a person as representative [Section 113(1)]

A representative of President or Governor shall be deemed to be a member of such a company and shall be entitled to exercise the same rights and powers, including the right to vote by proxy and postal ballot, as the President or, as the case may be, the Governor could exercise as a member of the company. [Section 112(2)]

A representative of body corporate shall be entitled to exercise the same rights and powers, including the right to vote by proxy and by postal ballot, on behalf of the body corporate which he represents as that body could exercise if it were an individual member, creditor or holder of debentures of the company. [Section 113(2)]

Major difference among representative under Section 112(2) and 113(3) is that representative of President or Governor shall be deemed to be a member but representative of body corporate is a mere representative who may exercise powers as a member. This difference arises from drafting and may not have much practical impact.

 Major similarity among representative under Section 112(2) and 113(3) is that both representatives may vote by proxy and postal ballot.

So now, for the purpose of this post, we may treat all members as individual as corporate sole and body corporate also being represented by individuals exercise same powers in the general meeting.

Proxy:

Where a member may not present, member may appoint a proxy under Section 105 of the Companies Act, 2013 t attend and vote in the meeting. Similar provision was there in earlier Acts also.

A proxy may vote even if member present personally in the meeting until members expressly revoke proxy or vote himself which implicitly revoke the proxy. [Tata Iron & Steel Co. Ltd., In Re., AIR 1928 Bom. 80].

We have discussed legal provisions related to proxies earlier here and here. We here reproduced only few provisions required for this post.

The instrument appointing a proxy shall be in writing and be signed by the appointer or his attorney. Where appointer is a body corporate, it shall be sealed of body corporate and signed by an officer of attorney. [Section 105(6)] The appointment of proxy shall be in the Form MGT – 11. [Rule 19(3)]

Limitation of Proxy:

Proxy is an agent for the purpose of voting on poll in a general meeting and cannot speak or vote otherwise. [Section 105(1)] What is use of such agent, if the voice of the member could not reach and heard in General Meeting? This limit right of the members to certain manner.

This limited right to appoint is not available to all classes of members. A member of a company not having a share capital shall not be entitled to appoint proxy unless articles provide so. Central Government may also specify companies whose members shall not be entitle to appoint a proxy.  [Proviso to Section 105(1)]

How can a member ensure to coup with such limitation where he could not be represented through proxy? How can a member ensure his voice in general meeting?

Attorney:

The companies Act, 2013 does not give the answer to abovementioned questions. This does not render a member helpless. The Power of Attorney Act, 1882 come to rescue a member in this situation.

A Power of Attorney includes any instrument empowering a specified person to act for and in the name of the person executing it. [Section 1A of the Power of Attorney Act, 1882]

A ‘power-of-attorney’ means a formal instrument by which one person empowers another to represent him, or act in his stead, for certain purposes, usually in the form of a deed poll, and attested by two witnesses. The donor of the power is called the principal or constituent; the donee is called the attorney or agent. [Osborn’s Concise Law Dictionary, 7th Edn.,]

The donee of a power of attorney may execute pr do any instrument or thing in and with his own name and signature, and his own seal, where sealing is required, by authority of the donor of the power; and every instrument and thing so executed and done, shall be as effectual in law as if it had been executed or done by the donee of the power in the name, and with the signature and seal, of the donor thereof. [Section 2 of the Power of Attorney Act, 1882]

However, an attorney may do such act only when the attorney and the donor have capacity to make contract.

Where a Power of Attorney contains the following words “… to appear and to represent me at any meeting of any joint stock company in which I am interested as a shareholder or debenture holder or preference shareholder, or as a member or otherwise and to vote there, and also to grant proxies to any other person …” These words are sufficient for attorney to exercise powers of member in a general meeting. [Tata Iron & Steel Co. Ltd., In Re., AIR 1928 Bom. 80].

A holder of General Power of Attorney shall be treated as member personally present not as a proxy. Accordingly, he will be counted for the purpose of quorum. A General Power of Attorney may include all power of members which it may exercise as members under the Companies Act 2013 and any other law for the time being in force.

However, a power of attorney executed outside India shall be treated in accordance with the law of that that country for the time being in force.

Please note: This blog invite readers to share their comments, suggestions, hardship, queries and everything in comment section. This blog post is not a professional advice but just a knowledge sharing initiative for mutual discussion.

AOC – 4 XBRL (v. 1st October2015)


MCA recently introduced the Companies (Filing of Documents and forms in XBRL) Rules 2015 dated 9th September 2015 for which I have yet to locate published copy in the Official Gazette. These rules shall come into force from the date of publication in Official Gazette. These rules have already discussed earlier here.

Note: AOC – 4 XBRL Version 1st October 2015 is being used for writing this post.

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Counter Puzzle of Auditor Appointment


No doubt the Companies Act, 2013 is not a law but collection of legal puzzle. Compliance of its provisions became hell. This is not just because of poor drafting of law but poor reading of law. We student of the Companies Act, 2013 need to unlearn the Companies Act, 1956 first and finally. We need to know, learn, understand and educate ourselves that the Companies Act, 1956 is now only for reference purpose only.

In last post, we discussed puzzle of ADT – 1 here but every coin have second side also. In that post we start reading form the charging sub – section and in this post we will start reading form the compliance required by the Ministry i.e. ADT – 1 itself.

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Puzzle of Auditor Appointment (ADT – 1)


No doubt the Companies Act, 2013 is not a law but collection of legal puzzle. Compliance of its provisions became hell. This is not just because of poor drafting of law but poor reading of law. We student of the Companies Act, 2013 need to unlearn the Companies Act, 1956 first and finally. We need to know, learn, understand and educate ourselves that the Companies Act, 1956 is now only for reference purpose only.

In this post we will try to solve puzzle of ADT – 1, Rule 4 and Section 139.

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AOC – 4


Recent amendment to the Companies (Accounts) Second Amendment Rules 2015 dated 4th September 2015 for which I have yet to locate published copy in the Official Gazette. This Amendment shall come into force from the date of publication in Official Gazette. By virtue of its Rule 12(1) is being substituted. According to substituted Rule, “Every company shall file the financial statements with Registrar together with Form AOC – 4 and the consolidated financial statement, if any with Form AOC – 4 CFS.” Original rule was discussed earlier here.

Earlier Form AOC – 4 is also proposed to be replaced with Form AOC – 4 and Form AOC – 4 CFS. In this post we will discuss Form AOC – 4.

Note: AOC – 4 Version 30th September 2015 is being used for writing this post. The post is long one but to avoid confusion, i opted not to split this post. Readers may read it segment wise.

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MAJOR RECOMMENDATIONS OF CSR COMMITTEE


The High level Committee constituted by Ministry of Corporate Affairs to suggest measures for improved monitoring of implementation of Corporate Social Responsibility Policies by the companies under Section 135 of the Companies Act, 2013 has submitted its Report to the Government. A copy of report is available here.

We will summarily discuss recommendations of the committee in this post.

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MGT – 7 (v. 30Sept2015)


Recent amendment to the Companies (Management and Administration) Second Amendment Rules 2015 dated 28th August 2015 published in Official Gazette on 31st August 2015 which came into force with effect from 31st August 2015 by virtue of its Rule 1(2) replaced the Form MGT – 7 meant for Annual Return of companies. The Form MGT – 7 was released on 25th September 2015 another amendment rules to justify content of this form.

Note: MGT – 7 Version 30th September 2015 is being used for writing this post. The post is long one but to avoid confusion, i opted not to split this post. Readers may read in parts.

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CARO 2015


Even though, Companies (Auditor’s Report) Order, 2015 is placed along with Removal of difficulty orders, both are complete of different genre.

Companies (Auditor’s Report) Order, 2015 is issued in exercise of powers conferred by Section 143(11). The Central Government may, in consultation with the National Financial Reporting Authority, by general or special order, direct, in respect of such class or description of companies, as may be specified in the order, that the auditor’s report shall also include a statement on such matters as may be specified therein. National Financial Reporting Authority under Section 132 is not yet constituted and this order is issued after consultation with the Institute of chartered Accountants of India. [I am not commenting on Legal status of the Order. However, it may be enough if a Removal of Difficulty order issued simultaneously.]

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2nd Amendment 2015: Deposits Rules


Ministry of Corporate Affairs placed on its web site a DRAFT notification on 15th September 2015 which proposed the Companies (Acceptance of Deposits) Second Amendment Rules, 2015.

These rules shall come into force form the date of their publication in the Official Gazette.

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Filing of documents and forms in XBRL


Ministry of Corporate Affairs placed on its web site a DRAFT notification on 9th September 2015 which proposed the Companies (Filing of documents and forms in Extensive Business Reporting Language) Rules, 2015.

These rules shall come into force from the date of their publication in the Official Gazette.

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Exemptions to Government Companies producing defence equipments


Ministry of Corporate Affairs placed on its web site a DRAFT notification on 4th September 2015 which proposed certain exemption to government companies producing defence equipments including space research from certain Para of Schedule III of the Companies Act, 2013.

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YEARS’ ‘second’ AMENDMENT IN ACCOUNTS RULES


Ministry of Corporate Affairs placed on its web site a DRAFT notification on 4th September 2015 which proposed to amend the Companies (Accounts) Rules, 2015 with effect from date of publication of this notification in the official Gazette.

We will discuss here, provisions proposed to be amended by this notification:

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EXTRACT OF ANNUAL RETURN


Section 92 of the Companies Act, 2013 as extensively discussed earlier here, requires every company to prepare an annual return in a prescribed form. According to Section 92(3), an extract of the annual return in such form as may be prescribed shall form part of the Board’s report.

According to Rule 12(1), the extract of the annual return to be attached with the Board’s Report shall be in Form MGT – 9. In this post, we will study this Form MGT – 9.

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CERTIFICATION OF ANNUAL RETURN


According to Section 92(2) discussed earlier here, the annual return, filed by a listed company or, by a company having such paid-up capital and turnover as may be prescribed, shall be certified by a company secretary in practice in the prescribed form, stating that the annual return discloses the facts correctly and adequately and that the company has complied with all the provisions of this Act.

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ANNUAL RETURN – 4 COMPLIANCES


The Form discussed was notified in original Rules but never implemented, a new form is notified in August 2015, which is yet to be implemented  at the time of this writing.

 

PENALTIES, PUNISHMENT, COMPOUNDING OF OFFENCES:

Penalties, punishment and compounding of offences may be on three categories of persons:

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