Tag Archives: Members

Shareholders in General Meeting


To be legally correct I will say, all Members of a company may attend a General Meeting including the Annual General Meeting of a company. I will discuss, related aspects in brief.

Member

In legal terminology Section 2(55) of the Companies Act, 2013 defines the term member:

“member”, in relation to a company, means—

(i) the subscriber to the memorandum of the company who shall be deemed to have agreed to become a member of the company, and on its registration, shall be entered as a member in its register of members;

(ii) every other person who agrees in writing to become a member of the company and whose name is entered in the register of members of the company;

(iii) every person holding shares of the company and whose name is entered as a beneficial owner in the records of a depository.”

Members are those shareholders who got shares registered in their name.

A shareholder, who has recently purchased, inherited or received a gift of shares of a company may not become shareholders unless shares are registered in its name. Likewise, a member who has recently sold, died or given a gift of shares may continue as members til such shares are registered in the name of another person.

Please note in case of de-materialised shares, such registration happened immediately.

Notice of (Annual) General Meeting

According to Section 101(3)(a) of the Act, the notice of every meeting of the company shall be given to every member of the company, legal representative of any deceased member or the assignee of an insolvent member.

Quorum

Normally the quorum of a general meeting:

(a) in case of a public company,—

(i) five members personally present if the number of members as on the date of the meeting is not more than one thousand;

(ii) fifteen members personally present if the number of members as on the date of the meeting is more than one thousand but up to five thousand;

(iii) thirty members personally present if the number of members as on the date of the meeting exceeds five thousand;

(b) in the case of a private company, two members personally present shall be the quorum for a meeting of the company.

There is no discrimination among member, who may present. Every member person who received the notice of a general meeting may attend it.

Voting

In normal circumstances, only members who are equity shareholder may vote as per defined voting rights. According to Section 47(1)(a) of the Act, every member of a company limited by shares and holding equity share capital therein, shall have a right to vote on every resolution placed before the company. Presently, it is possible to have different classes of equity shareholders with differential voting rights.

Members, who are preference shareholders may vote in certain circumstances only. Every member of a company limited by shares and holding any preference share capital therein shall, in respect of such capital, have a right to vote only on resolutions placed before the company which directly affect the rights attached to his preference shares and, any resolution for the winding up of the company or for the repayment or reduction of its equity or preference share capital and his voting right on a poll shall be in proportion to his share in the paid-up preference share capital of the company. Where the dividend in respect of a class of preference shares has not been paid for a period of two years or more, such class of preference shareholders shall have a right to vote on all the resolutions placed before the company.

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Limited in Limited Company??


I receive a question on Quora which may interest readers of this Blog. The question is –

What is limited in private limited company? I understand limited means limited liability but can someone explain with a detailed example about how this liability turns out to be limited. Please use numerical in the example. Lets consider 4 owners, each one has 25% stake in the company & the total investment is say 1 lac INR.”

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BOOKS OF ACCOUNTS


The Financial Statements of a company is most important document until recent past, when non – financial reporting started to gain its momentum. This is a reporting of growth in business in monetary units.

BOOK OF ACCOUNTS (SECTION 128):

Every company shall prepare and keep at its registered office books of accounts and other relevant books and papers and financial statement for every financial year. These books must give a true and fair view of the state of affairs of the company and its branch offices. These books must explain the transactions effected both at the registered office and its branches.  These books shall be kept on actual basis and double entry system of accounting.

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PENALTIES RELATED TO OPPRESSION & MISMANAGEMENT UNDER COMPANIES ACT 2013


UPDATE: on 30th August 2013: Companies Bill 2012 became the Companies Act, 2013 (Act 18 of 2013).

In my last two post, I wrote about “Oppression and Mismanagement” and “Class Action” under the Companies Bill 2012. Section 246 makes it necessary for me to discuss Sections 337 to 341 of the Bill. These sections are natural extension to provisions related to “Oppression and Management” and “Class Action” under Chapter XVI.

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CLASS ACTION IN COMPANIES ACT, 2013


UPDATE: on 30th August 2013: Companies Bill 2012 became the Companies Act, 2013 (Act 18 of 2013).

In continuation with my last blog post on Oppression and Mismanagement; I am reading Class Action under Clause 245 of the Bill. Provisions relating to Class Action are under Chapter XVI of the Companies Bill, 2012 and basically target to achieve investor protection in limited manner and on experimental basis.

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OPPRESSION & MISMANAGEMENT UNDER COMPANIES ACT 2013


UPDATE: on 30th August 2013: Companies Bill 2012 became the Companies Act, 2013 (Act 18 of 2013).

Class Action is one of the youngest additions to Indian jurisprudence particularly, in Indian Corporate Jurisprudence. Class Action aims to prevent Oppression and Mismanagement in Companies. The Provisions relating to Oppression and Mismanagement are in Chapter XVI of the Companies Bill, 2012.

In this post, I will cover Section 241 – 244 which deals with normal provisions.

In next post, I will discuss Section 245 dealing with Class Action and after that Section 246 read with Section 373 to 341.

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