Tag Archives: Shares

Share – an abstract God


There is a common property of the God, Rupee and Shares? I replied. The question was how a share look like. Though it may be hard to believe but these three have an ultimate abstract only. You can see an idol of the God or gods, a note of one rupee or more rupees, a certificate of one or more shares, never the God, Rupee and Share (in a normal life). We will discuss a share in following paragraphs.

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REPORT OF THE COMPANIES LAW COMMITTEE – 4


On 1st February 2016, Ministry of Corporate Affairs uploaded the report of Companies Law Committee on its website here. In 4th post on this report, we will discuss recommendations of the committee related to shares, debentures, general meeting, NFRA, Board Report, CSR etc.

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Designated Securities


The Securities and Exchange Board of India (Listing Obligation and Disclosure Requirements) Regulations 2015 was notified on 2nd September 2015 and will come into force from 1st December 2015. In this post we will discussion definition of Designated Securities.

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Saving Private Assets


[A new Web portal LawStreetIndia launched on Pongal this year. This piece was originally published on LawStreetIndia here on 15th January 2015. This blog wish all success to the portal]

Investor Education and Protection Fund is a permanent parking lot of all unclaimed shares and dividend under the Companies Act. Unending hunger of fund by government results its claim on everything unclaimed with help of hurriedly drafted laws. Yes, for all legal purpose, government is not going to own such money and keep it in trust but fund so transferred help to arrange mileage for government as administrator of such fund.

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REDUCTION OF SHARE CAPITAL


Reduction of capital is a sensitive issue; managerially, financially, economically, and legally. Hence, reduction of capital by a company is always subject to confirmation by the Tribunal on an application made by the company. Company applying for reduction may either be a company limited by share or a company limited by guarantee but having a share capital. Reduction of capital must be approved by special resolution passed by the company. a company may reduce share capital in following manner –

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ALTERATION OF SHARE CAPITAL


Every business run on finance and share capital is base finance, hence life blood of a company.

PUBLICATION OF CAPITAL (SECTION 60):

Where any communication or publication of a company contains a statement of the amount of the authorise capital of the company, it shall also contain a statement in an equally prominent position and in equally conspicuous characters of the amount of the capital which has been subscribed and the amount paid – up.

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TRANSFER AND TRANSMISSION OF SECURITIES


Free transferability of share is one essential condition for Company form of business, subject to some restrictions under private companies. New Act, deals with substantially.

TRANSFER AND TRANSMISSION OF SECURITIES (SECTION 56):

A company shall register a transfer of securities or interest of members only when such a proper instrument of transfer; duly stamped, dated and executed by or on behalf of the transferor and transferee and specifying the name, address and occupation has been delivered to the company by either party within a period of sixty days from date of execution, along with the certificate of security or the letter of allotment of securities.

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SHARE CAPITAL (Companies Act, 2013)


We have discussed earlier post The Company under the Companies Bill 2012 which is still relevant when the bill become Act; all companies do not have share capital. Only companies limited by shares have share capital.

KIND OF SHARE CAPITAL (SECTION 43):

The share capital of companies limited by share shall be of two kinds, namely;

(a)  equity share capital;

(b) Preference share capital.

Here, use of two terms “Shall be” and “and” denote this is a requirement to have both kind of share capital but, according to further reading, company may have zero equity or preference share capital.

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MAJOR CAUTIONS UNDER PUBLIC OFFER (COMPANIES ACT, 2013)


In recent posts, we discussed provisions of Chapter III of the Companies Act, 2013. This is time to discuss major penal provisions in this chapter.

CRIMINAL LIABILITY FOR MIS-STATEMENT IN PROSPECTUS (SECTION 34):

Where a prospectus, issued, circulated or distributed:

a)    includes any statement which is untrue or misleading in form or context in which it is included; or

b)   where any inclusion or omission of any matter is likely to mislead;

Every person who authorises the issue of such prospectus shall be liable under section 447 i.e. fraud.

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ALLOTMENT OF SECURITIES (Companies Act 2013)


In recent posts, we have discussed matters related to prospectus. In this post we will discuss, matters related to issue and allotment of securities following public offer.

SECURITIES IN DEMATERIALISED FORM (SECTION 29):

Under this section;

  1. Every company making public offer; and
  2. Such other class or classes of companies as may be prescribed

shall issue the securities only in the dematerialised form.

When any company issue its securities in dematerialised form, provisions of the Depositories Act, 1996 and regulations made under that Act shall be applicable.

There is no bar for any other company to issue its securities in any form. Any other company may convert its securities into dematerialised form.

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VARIANTS OF PROSPECTUS (Companies Act, 2013)


In our last blog post Prospectus (Companies Act 2013) , we discussed provisions related to prospectus. We will continue our study in this post.

ADVERTISEMENT OF PROSPECTUS (SECTION 30):

When a company issue an advertisement of prospectus, the advertisement shall specify contents of its memorandum; the objects, the liability of members, amount of share capital, name of signatories, and number of shares subscribed for by these signatories and its capital structure.

SHELF PROSPECTUS (SECTION 31):

Any class of company may file a shelf prospectus with the Registrar of Companies at the stage of first offer of securities.

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PROSPECTUS (Companies Act 2013)


In last post, public offer and private placement we have discussed public offer. In this post we will discuss Prospectus under Companies Act, 2013

Clause (70) of Section 2 of this Bill define “prospectus” means any document described or issued as a prospectus and includes a red herring prospectus referred to in section 32 or shelf prospectus referred to in section 31 or any notice, circular, advertisement or other document inviting offers from the public for the subscription or purchase of any securities of a body corporate.

Section 26 deals with matters to be stated in prospectus.

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PUBLIC OFFER AND PRIVATE PLACEMENT


Any business cannot run without funds. In case of an incorporated company, initial capital always come from subscribers to the memorandum. As we have discussed in earlier post Commencement of Business, company should commence its business within 180 days by filing some documents with Registrar of Companies. This is legal requirement of Section 11, all subscribers should paid the value of shares agreed to be taken by him and company should receive that money before filing document for filing for commencement of business. But this initial capital may not be sufficient for running a business. [UPDATE: This  portion stand deleted due to the Companies (Amendment) Act, 2015.] Public funding is a fundamental proposition for legal structure called company.

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