Share Certificate and Family Company


Away from strictly legal structure know to us, we students of Indian corporate laws know specific classes of companies  – Husband-wife company, Family company, friends basically, and company – “basically partnership” etc. Nothing is defined but all these terms. The basic character of these companies is the utmost trust and faith at the time of incorporation. Due to this, we receive specific queries like:

Is it mandatory to issue a share certificate if both/all the directors are shareholders?

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Now, Added SPICe Incorporation


The era of simple incorporation has already been over. We have SPICe since long which claimed to facilitate additional registrations at the option of the applicant. Now, This is over. The Government is now at the final stage of serving added SPICe. The menu name “SPICe+”

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SUBSCRIPTION SHEET


Foundations of all great buildings are usually a neglected construction but ensuring long life of the building. Subscription Sheet is one of the neglected areas of our discussions in corporate laws. With the introduction of eMemorandum of Association (SPICe MoA) and eArticles of Association (SPICe AoA), we usually consider it obsolete. No, it is actually not.

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THE ECOSYSTEM OF LAW


How to read the ecosystem of law is the basic question all practitioners of procedural laws raise time to time. This is not the same question students of law raise in schools or lawyers in courts. This is not all about interpretation and cracking of a law code hidden behind words. Here, I am trying to reply with reference to my bread and butter – the Companies Act, 2013 and The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016.

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Provisional Registration of Company


No. In this post, I am not discussing any existing law. This a proposal I received in form of a query on Quora about registration of a temporary company. I received another query, how India registered so many “paper companies”.

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Advantage of Public Deposit


This is a brief (not a legal) note on the advantage of public deposit made by the general public under the Companies Act. What advantage public deposit have.

I personally do not see it as a safe investment avenue for the general public. Unless you have a risk-bearing capacity to invest the same amount in the volatile stock market, it is advisable not to invest in Public Deposit.

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Is Bank a Company?


I received an interesting query on Quora earlier this month. Another day, another reader asked on WhatsApp why Registrar of Companies or Serious Fraud Investigation Office is not taking action against “PMC Bank Limited”. The reader was ignorant of the word “co-operative” in the name of scam-hit banks. Last year, one member/shareholder of the State Bank of India queried about compliance by the bank under the Companies Act, 2013.

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Founder of a Company


The founder is not a legal term in relation to a company. General Public usually uses this term to refer to the original promoters of any company.

Interestingly, the definition of the term “promoter” also do not indicate directly to “founders” as the definition is drafted with the perspective of an existing company.

Now, I must subscribers to the Memorandum of Association (MoA), the founding or constituting documents of a company are first promoters. They satisfy two conditions of the definition of promoters also.

Subscribers of the MoA took initiatives to form a company and give a legal birth to it. Sometimes one of them actually leads and recognised by other subscribers as founder subscriber.

In short, the mind has a seed of the company in it may be called the founder of the company.

Notarised- Apostilled Documents


What documents should I notarize or apostilled for the purpose of incorporation of a company in India? This is one common question asked by a person with citizenship or resident outside India.

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Recapitulation Cross-Border Insolvency


Guest Post Author: Riya Gulati

Prologue

Cross-border insolvency modulates the treatment of financially distressed borrowers where such borrowers have creditors or assets in more than one nation. International insolvency chiefly accentuates on three modules: choice of law, jurisdiction and enforcement of dictum rules. Indeed, cross-border insolvency fetches with it a host of legal and ethical convolutions and ramifications. Nonetheless, in the matters pertaining to the international insolvency cases, the prime focus inclines on the recognition of foreign functionaries and their powers. The UNCITRAL Model Law on Cross-Border Insolvency and the EC Regulation on Insolvency Proceedings 2000 are the two fundamental contemporaneous regimes for the cross-border insolvencies that have been executed on something outspread than a territorial basis.

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COMPLIANCE BY INDEPENDENT DIRECTORS


In the last post PROFICIENT INDEPENDENT DIRECTORS, we discussed the introduction of “proficiency self – assessment test” by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs. The Companies (Appointment and Qualification of Directors) Fifth Amendment Rules, 2019 gives teeth to the Companies (Creation and Maintenance of database of Independent Directors) Rules, 2019. We, in this post, will discuss the Companies (Appointment and Qualification of Directors) Fifth Amendment Rules, 2019. More power is given by the Companies (Accounts) Amendment Rules, 2019.

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PROFICIENT INDEPENDENT DIRECTORS


What else may be the name of the youngest profession on the block of Corporate India? The new test is here to hit test-taking taste bud of Indian professionals. Rule 4(a) of the Companies (Creation and Maintenance of database of Independent Directors) Rules, 2019 introduces silently the “proficiency self – assessment test”. Ministry of Corporate Affairs by notification G.S.R. 805(E) dated 22nd October 2019 introduced these rules.

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FOLIO NUMBER


Folio number is one of the number a common shareholder of a company concerns. In this era of dematerialisation folio may not of much concern for a seasoned investor but it certainly have value for shareholders and entrepreneur having medium small and micro sector companies. Every shareholder found this number at his share certificate and read it distinctive numbers of shares. A folio number once allocated never changes until a person remains a shareholder in the company.

The folio number also puzzle young companies secretaries how to allocate a folio number to a shareholder. This post briefly touches the subject.

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Filing Web Form IEPF-5


We earlier here discussed law related to refund and reclaim of amount and shares from the Investor Education and Protection Fund under the amended Rules. For this purpose, the Government launched New Form IEPF-5 in its web version on 20th September 2019. In this post, we will discuss the practical aspect of filing this form.

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Legal Claims on Work-related Injuries


Guest Post by: Eric Tress Eric@TheRosenfeldFoundation.com

Getting injured at work is never a welcome occurrence. It may cause you to miss work for days or even weeks as you recuperate. If the injury is severe, it could put you out of work altogether. 

As if the hospital bills and possible loss of wages are not enough, work-related injuries can also trigger a lot of emotional and mental distress. There is a small consolation in knowing that workers compensation exists to alleviate such stress.

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NODAL OFFICER


Originally, neither the Investor Education and Protection Fund Authority (Accounting, Audit, Transfer and Refund) Rules, 2016 nor the Companies Act, 2013 have any mention of Nodal Officer except Form IEPF – 5. The Investor Education and Protection Fund Authority (Accounting, Audit, Transfer and Refund) Second Amendment Rules, 2017 first time bring this term in main rules. Now the Investor Education and Protection Fund Authority (Accounting, Audit, Transfer and Refund) Second Amendment Rules, 2019 strengthen and formalized the office of Nodal Officer. New Provision came into effect with effect from 20th August 2019.

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REFUND OR RECLAIM FROM IEPF


Ministry of Corporate Affairs amended the Investor Education and Protection Fund Authority (Accounting, Audit, Transfer and Refund) Rules, 2016. The Investor Education and Protection Fund Authority (Accounting, Audit, Transfer and Refund) Second Amendment Rules, 2019 rules published in Official Gazette on 14th August 2019. In this post, we will discuss amended provisions related to refund of such amount and shares related to unpaid dividend transferred to the Investor Education and Protection Fund Authority. Amendment relevant to this post comes into effect with effect from 20th September 2019 except fraudulent claim and deceitful impersonation related provisions under Rule 7(11) which came into effect on 20th August 2019.

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EFFECT OF TRANSFER OF SHARES TO IEPF


Sub – Section (6) of Section 124 mandates transfer of all shares in respect of which dividend has not been paid or claimed for seven consecutive years or more in the name of Investor Education and Protection Fund along with a statement containing such details as prescribed. Rule 5 of the Investor Education and Protection Fund Authority (Accounting, Audit, Transfer and Refund) Rules, 2016 prescribe the manner of such credit.  We discussed procedure amended with effect from 20th August 2019 in the last post here. In this post, we will discuss the post-transfer effects and procedures.

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TRANSFER OF SHARES RELATED TO UNPAID DIVIDEND


Sub – Section (6) of Section 124 mandates transfer of all shares in respect of which dividend has not been paid or claimed for seven consecutive years or more in the name of Investor Education and Protection Fund along with a statement containing such details as prescribed. Rule 5 of the Investor Education and Protection Fund Authority (Accounting, Audit, Transfer and Refund) Rules, 2016 prescribe the manner of such credit.  The procedure is now amended with effect from 20th August 2019.

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CREDIT OF CERTAIN AMOUNTS TO IEPF


Section 124 of the Companies Act, 2013 and other provisions of laws mandates credits of certain amounts to the Investor Education and Protection Fund (IEPF). Rule 5 of the Investor Education and Protection Fund Authority (Accounting, Audit, Transfer and Refund) Rules, 2016 prescribe the manner of such credit.  The procedure is now amended with effect from 20th August 2019. We will discuss the updated process which is more logical and easy to comply.

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