In recent post we have discussed Winding up by Tribunal, Company Liquidators and winding up order, Report of Liquidators, Directions, other procedures and dissolution of company. We continue provisions related to winding up of a company by Tribunal in this post.


The Tribunal may, at any time after passing of a winding up order, pass an order requiring any contributory for the time being on the list of contributories to pay, in the manner directed by the order, any money due to the company, from him or from the estate of the person whom he represents, exclusive of any money payable by him or the estate by virtue of any call in pursuance of this Act.

The Tribunal in making an order may –

(a) in the case of an unlimited company, allow to the contributory, by way of setoff, any money due to him or to the estate which he represents, from the company, on any independent dealing or contract with the company, but not any money due to him as a member of the company in respect of any dividend or profit; and

(b) in the case of a limited company, allow to any director or manager whose liability is unlimited, or to his estate, such set-off.

In the case of any company, whether limited or unlimited, when all the creditors have been paid in full, any money due on any account whatever to a contributory from the company may be allowed to him by way of set-off against any subsequent call.


The Tribunal may, at any time after the passing of a winding up order, and either before or after it has ascertained the sufficiency of the assets of the company,—

(a) make calls on all or any of the contributories for the time being on the list of the contributories, to the extent of their liability, for payment of any money which the Tribunal considers necessary to satisfy the debts and liabilities of the company, and the costs, charges and expenses of winding up, and for the adjustment of the rights of the contributories among themselves; and

(b) make an order for payment of any calls so made.


The Tribunal shall adjust the rights of the contributories among themselves and distribute any surplus among the persons entitled thereto.


The Tribunal may, in the event of the assets of a company being insufficient to satisfy its liabilities, make an order for the payment out of the assets, of the costs, charges and expenses incurred in the winding up, in such order of priority inter se as the Tribunal thinks just and proper.


The Tribunal may, at any time after the appointment of a provisional liquidator or the passing of a winding up order, summon before it any officer of the company or person known or suspected to have in his possession any property or books or papers, of the company, or known or suspected to be indebted to the company, or any person whom the Tribunal thinks to be capable of giving information concerning the promotion, formation, trade, dealings, property, books or papers, or affairs of the company.

The Tribunal may examine any officer or person so summoned on oath concerning the matters aforesaid, either by word of mouth or on written interrogatories or on affidavit and may reduce his answers to writing and require him to sign them.

The Tribunal may require any officer or person so summoned to produce any books and papers relating to the company in his custody or power, but, where he claims any lien on books or papers produced by him, the production shall be without prejudice to such lien, and the Tribunal shall have power to determine all questions relating to that lien.

The Tribunal may direct the liquidator to file before it a report in respect of debt or property of the company in possession of other persons.

If the Tribunal finds that—

(a) a person is indebted to the company, the Tribunal may order him to pay to the provisional liquidator or, as the case may be, the liquidator at such time and in such manner as the Tribunal may consider just, the amount in which he is indebted, or any part thereof, either in full discharge of the whole amount or not, as the Tribunal thinks fit, with or without costs of the examination;

(b) a person is in possession of any property belonging to the company, the Tribunal may order him to deliver to the provisional liquidator or, as the case may be, the liquidator, that property or any part thereof, at such time, in such manner and on such terms as the Tribunal may consider just.

If any officer or person so summoned fails to appear before the Tribunal at the time appointed without a reasonable cause, the Tribunal may impose an appropriate cost.

Every order made under sub-section (5) shall be executed in the same manner as decrees for the payment of money or for the delivery of property under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908.

Any person making any payment or delivery in pursuance of an order made under sub-section (5) shall by such payment or delivery be, unless otherwise directed by such order, discharged from all liability whatsoever in respect of such debt or property.


Where an order has been made for the winding up of a company by the Tribunal and the Company Liquidator has made a report to the Tribunal under this Act, stating that in his opinion a fraud has been committed by any person in the promotion, formation, business or conduct of affairs of the company since its formation, the Tribunal may, after considering the report, direct that such person or officer shall attend before the Tribunal on a day appointed by it for that purpose, and be examined as to the promotion or formation or the conduct of the business of the company or as to his conduct and dealings as an officer thereof.

The Company Liquidator shall take part in the examination, and for that purpose he or it may, if specially authorised by the Tribunal in that behalf, employ such legal assistance as may be sanctioned by the Tribunal.

The person shall be examined on oath and shall answer all such questions as the Tribunal may put, or allow to be put, to him.

A person ordered to be examined under this section—

(a) shall, before his examination, be furnished at his own cost with a copy of the

report of the Company Liquidator; and

(b) may at his own cost employ chartered accountants or company secretaries or cost accountants or legal practitioners entitled to appear before the Tribunal under section 432, who shall be at liberty to put to him such questions as the Tribunal may consider just for the purpose of enabling him to explain or qualify any answers given by him.

If any such person applies to the Tribunal to be exculpated from any charges made or suggested against him, it shall be the duty of the Company Liquidator to appear on the hearing of such application and call the attention of the Tribunal to any matters which appear to the Company Liquidator to be relevant.

If the Tribunal, after considering any evidence given or hearing witnesses called by the Company Liquidator, allows the application made under sub-section (5), the Tribunal may order payment to the applicant of such costs as it may think fit.

Notes of the examination shall be taken down in writing, and shall be read over to or by, and signed by, the person examined, a copy be supplied to him and may thereafter be used in evidence against him, and shall be open to inspection by any creditor or contributory at all reasonable times.

The Tribunal may, if it thinks fit, adjourn the examination from time to time.

An examination under this section may, if the Tribunal so directs, be held before any person or authority authorised by the Tribunal.

The powers of the Tribunal under this section as to the conduct of the examination, but not as to costs, may be exercised by the person or authority before whom the examination is held in pursuance of sub-section (9).


At any time either before or after passing a winding up order, if the Tribunal is satisfied that a contributory or a person having property, accounts or papers of the company in his possession is about to leave India or otherwise to abscond, or is about to remove or conceal any of his property, for the purpose of evading payment of calls or of avoiding examination respecting the affairs of the company, the Tribunal may cause—

(a) the contributory to be detained until such time as the Tribunal may order; and

(b) his books and papers and movable property to be seized and safely kept until such time as the Tribunal may order.


Nothing in this Chapter shall affect the operation or enforcement of any order made by any Court in any proceedings for the winding up of a company immediately before the commencement of this Act and an appeal against such order shall be filed before such authority competent to hear such appeals before such commencement.

In last seven posts, we have discussed provisions related to winding up by Tribunals. In future posts, we will discuss voluntary winding uo and general provisions related to winding up.

Please note: I welcome your comments and feedback. This blog post is not a professional advice. Readers may share this post on social media by using buttons given here.


No professional query in comments (but in mail). Only academic discussion here. Comments moderated. Sometime, I reply to your mail ID.

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.