Regulation 4 of the Securities and Exchange Board of India (Listing Obligations and Disclosure Requirements) Regulations 2015 enumerates principles governing disclosure and obligations of listed entities. There are two different set of principles one is general and second governance principles. In this post, we will discuss, governance principles.

Corporate Governance Principle

The listed entity which has listed its specified securities shall comply with the corporate governance provisions as specified in chapter IV which shall be implemented in a manner so as to achieve the objectives of the principles mentioned in Regulation 4(2) of SEBI (LODR) Regulations 2015.

The rights of shareholders

The listed entity shall seek to protect and facilitate the exercise of the following rights of shareholders under Regulation 4(2)(a) :

(i) right to participate in, and to be sufficiently informed of, decisions concerning fundamental corporate changes.

(ii) opportunity to participate effectively and vote in general shareholder meetings.

(iii)being informed of the rules, including voting procedures that govern general shareholder meetings.

(iv)opportunity to ask questions to the board of directors, to place items on the agenda of general meetings, and to propose resolutions, subject to reasonable limitations.

(v) Effective shareholder participation in key corporate governance decisions, such as the nomination and election of members of board of directors.

(vi)exercise of ownership rights by all shareholders, including institutional investors.

(vii) adequate mechanism to address the grievances of the shareholders.

(viii) protection of minority shareholders from abusive actions by, or in the interest of, controlling shareholders acting either directly or indirectly, and effective means of redress.

Timely information

According to Regulation 4(2)(b), the listed entity shall provide adequate and timely information to shareholders, including but not limited to the following:

(i) sufficient and timely information concerning the date, location and agenda of general meetings, as well as full and timely information regarding the issues to be discussed at the meeting.

(ii) Capital structures and arrangements that enable certain shareholders to obtain a degree of control disproportionate to their equity ownership.

(iii) rights attached to all series and classes of shares, which shall be disclosed to investors before they acquire shares.

Equitable treatment

The listed entity shall ensure equitable treatment of all shareholders, including minority and foreign shareholders, as per Regulation 4(2)(c) in the following manner:

(i) All shareholders of the same series of a class shall be treated equally.

(ii) Effective shareholder participation in key corporate governance decisions, such as the nomination and election of members of board of directors, shall be facilitated.

(iii)Exercise of voting rights by foreign shareholders shall be facilitated.

(iv)The listed entity shall devise a framework to avoid insider trading and abusive self-dealing.

(v) Processes and procedures for general shareholder meetings shall allow for equitable treatment of all shareholders.

(vi)Procedures of listed entity shall not make it unduly difficult or expensive to cast votes.

Role of stakeholders in corporate governance

The listed entity shall recognise the rights of its stakeholders and encourage co-operation between listed entity and the stakeholders as per Regulation 4(2)(d), in the following manner:

(i) The listed entity shall respect the rights of stakeholders that are established by law or through mutual agreements.

(ii) Stakeholders shall have the opportunity to obtain effective redress for violation of their rights.

(iii)Stakeholders shall have access to relevant, sufficient and reliable information on a timely and regular basis to enable them to participate in corporate governance process.

(iv)The listed entity shall devise an effective whistle blower mechanism enabling stakeholders, including individual employees and their representative bodies, to freely communicate their concerns about illegal or unethical practices.

Disclosure and transparency

The listed entity shall ensure timely and accurate disclosure on all material matters including the financial situation, performance, ownership, and governance of the listed entity according to Regulation 4(2)(e), in the following manner:

(i) Information shall be prepared and disclosed in accordance with the prescribed standards of accounting, financial and non-financial disclosure.

(ii) Channels for disseminating information shall provide for equal, timely and cost efficient access to relevant information by users.

(iii) Minutes of the meeting shall be maintained explicitly recording dissenting opinions, if any.

Responsibilities of the board of directors

The board of directors of the listed entity shall, according to Regulation  4(2)(f) have the following responsibilities:

Disclosure of information

(1) Members of board of directors and key managerial personnel shall disclose to the board of directors whether they, directly, indirectly, or on behalf of third parties, have a material interest in any transaction or matter directly affecting the listed entity.

(2) The board of directors and senior management shall conduct themselves so as to meet the expectations of operational transparency to stakeholders while at the same time maintaining confidentiality of information in order to foster a culture of good decision-making.

Key functions of the board of directors

(1) Reviewing and guiding corporate strategy, major plans of action, risk policy, annual budgets and business plans, setting performance objectives, monitoring implementation and corporate performance, and overseeing major capital expenditures, acquisitions and divestments.

(2) Monitoring the effectiveness of the listed entity’s governance practices and making changes as needed.

(3) Selecting, compensating, monitoring and, when necessary, replacing key managerial personnel and overseeing succession planning.

(4) Aligning key managerial personnel and remuneration of board of directors with the longer term interests of the listed entity and its shareholders.

(5) Ensuring a transparent nomination process to the board of directors with the diversity of thought, experience, knowledge, perspective and gender in the board of directors.

(6) Monitoring and managing potential conflicts of interest of management, members of the board of directors and shareholders, including misuse of corporate assets and abuse in related party transactions.

(7) Ensuring the integrity of the listed entity’s accounting and financial reporting systems, including the independent audit, and that appropriate systems of control are in place, in particular, systems for risk management, financial and operational control, and compliance with the law and relevant standards.

(8) Overseeing the process of disclosure and communications.

(9) Monitoring and reviewing board of director’s evaluation framework.

Other responsibilities:

(1) The board of directors shall provide strategic guidance to the listed entity, ensure effective monitoring of the management and shall be accountable to the listed entity and the shareholders.

(2) The board of directors shall set a corporate culture and the values by which executives throughout a group shall behave.

(3) Members of the board of directors shall act on a fully informed basis, in good faith, with due diligence and care, and in the best interest of the listed entity and the shareholders.

(4) The board of directors shall encourage continuing directors training to ensure that the members of board of directors are kept up to date.

(5) Where decisions of the board of directors may affect different shareholder groups differently, the board of directors shall treat all shareholders fairly.

(6) The board of directors shall maintain high ethical standards and shall take into account the interests of stakeholders.

(7) The board of directors shall exercise objective independent judgement on corporate affairs.

(8) The board of directors shall consider assigning a sufficient number of non-executive members of the board of directors capable of exercising independent judgement to tasks where there is a potential for conflict of interest.

(9) The board of directors shall ensure that, while rightly encouraging positive thinking, these do not result in over-optimism that either leads to significant risks not being recognised or exposes the listed entity to excessive risk.

(10)The board of directors shall have ability to ‘step back’ to assist executive management by challenging the assumptions underlying: strategy, strategic initiatives (such as acquisitions), risk appetite, exposures and the key areas of the listed entity’s focus.

(11)When committees of the board of directors are established, their mandate, composition and working procedures shall be well defined and disclosed by the board of directors.

(12) Members of the board of directors shall be able to commit themselves effectively to their responsibilities.

(13)In order to fulfil their responsibilities, members of the board of directors shall have access to accurate, relevant and timely information.

(14)The board of directors and senior management shall facilitate the independent directors to perform their role effectively as a member of the board of directors and also a member of a committee of board of directors.

Principles to Follow

In case of any ambiguity or incongruity between the principles and relevant regulations, the principles specified in this Chapter shall prevail.

Please note: This blog invite readers to share their comments, suggestions, hardship, queries and everything in comment section. This blog post is not a professional advice but just a knowledge sharing initiative for mutual discussion.



  1. Pingback: Index of Companies Law Posts | AishMGhrana

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